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提供代怀孕价格_真心找私人代妈_双语速读阿波罗
来源:http://twdaiyun.net  日期:2020-06-20
1961年,约翰·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)总统承诺,“在这个十年结束之前”,美国将把宇航员送上月球。当时,联邦预算出现盈余,经济学家呼吁政府支出以刺激经济。 如上图所示,即便如此,最终的价格仍然让人难以置信。1960年至1973年间,美国宇航局花费280亿美元开发了后来成为阿波罗计划所需的火箭、航天器和地面系统。根据行星协会(Planetary Society)最近的一项分析,经通胀因素调整后,这相当于估计2881亿美元的开销。 In current-year dollars, the analysis shows, the Apollo command and service modules cost the equivalent of $39 billion to develop, the lunar module ran another $23.4 billion, and the giant Saturn family of rockets and the engines required to boost astronauts into Earth orbit and beyond cost nearly $100 billion to design, test and launch. 本年度美元分析显示 , 阿波罗指挥和服务模块开发成本相当于390亿美元,登月舱运行外加234亿美元, 以及需要提高宇航员送入地球轨道巨大的土星火箭家族和引擎 ,总体超出成本近1000亿美元设计、测试和发布。 At the peak of Apollo program spending in 1966, the author of 提供代怀孕价格_真心找私人代妈 the analysis and senior space policy adviser for the Planetary Society,Dreier says, NASA accounted for roughly 4.4% of the federal budget — 6.6% of discretionary spending — more than the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb. “分析”的作者、行星协会高级空间政策顾问-德雷尔说,在1966年阿波罗计划开支达到顶峰时,美国宇航局大约占联邦预算的4.4%,占可自由支配开支的6.6%,比研制第一颗原子弹的曼哈顿计划还多。 In terms of relative GDP, that is, the spending required in 2019 to account for the same share of the economy as the Apollo project did in the 1960s, the Planetary Society calculates the equivalent of $702.3 billion would be required. 就相对国内生产总值(GDP)而言,也就是说,2019年所需经济支出与上世纪60年代的阿波罗计划(Apollo project)相同,行星协会(Planetary Society)估计,所需支出相当于7023亿美元。 NASA's 2020 budget request, including $1.6 billion in supplemental funding to kick-start the Artemis moon program, comes to $22.6 billion. Of that total,提供代怀孕价格_真心找私人代妈 $6.4 billion is directed to exploration, a 27% increase over 2019 levels. 美国宇航局2020年的预算要求,包括16亿美元的补充资金,以启动阿耳特弥斯月球计划,达到226亿美元。其中64亿美元用于勘探,比2019年增加了27%。 As it now stands, an initial unpiloted SLS test flight is planned for late next year or, more likely, 2021 with the first piloted flight of an Orion capsule expected in the 2022-23 timeframe. The first Artemis moon landing, using the third SLS booster and a yet-to-be designed lander, is planned for 2024. 按照目前的情况,首次无人驾驶SLS测试飞行计划将于明年晚些时候进行,或者更有可能在2021年进行,而猎户座太空舱的首次无人驾驶飞行预计将在2022-23年的时间框架内进行。第一次阿耳特弥斯号登月计划将于2024年进行,使用第三个SLS助推器和一个尚未设计的着陆器。 "To date, the White House has proposed an additional $1.6 billion for Project Artemis, on top of the $5 billion spent annually on the Space Launch System, Orion, and related ground systems," Dreier writes. “到目前为止,在每年用于太空发射系统、猎户座和相关地面系统的50亿美元的基础提供代怀孕价格_真心找私人代妈上,白宫已经为阿尔特弥斯计划提出了额外的16亿美元,”德雷尔写道。 "Compared to Apollo, this is a relatively modest investment. Looking forward, we should expect significant increases in spending associated with an accelerated lunar effort or 提供代怀孕价格_真心找私人代妈adjust our expectations accordingly." “与阿波罗计划相比,这是一项相对温和的投资。展望未来,我们应该期待与加速登月相关的支出大幅增加,或者相应地调整我们的预期。”

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